Predecessors catalogs the projects and organizations that were historically important to the development of the field of civic tech.

Appropriate technology movement

a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, affordable by locals, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.

cat-icon Bonn, German Empire

Breaking New Ground: Pioneering Electronic Land Registration in Ontario, 1987-2010

[C]ivil servants at the provincial Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations led a groundbreaking effort to form a public–private partnership to convert millions of property records—both from paper to digital and in some cases from a deeds system to titles—and create the world’s first electronic land registration system

cat-icon Ontario

Carl Malamud Launches Free Online Access to SEC EDGAR Records

Until this day, the only way to access the Securities and Exchange Commission's Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (EDGAR) database of filings from public corporations and financial entities was to go to a special reading room in Washington, DC, or to pay private information services.

cat-icon Washington, DC

Chaos Computer Club

Europe's largest association of hackers.

cat-icon Berlin, Germany

Electronic Frontier Foundation

The leading nonprofit defending digital privacy, free speech, and innovation.

cat-icon 815 Eddy Street, San Francisco, CA 94109, USA

Free Software Foundation

A nonprofit with a worldwide mission to promote computer user freedom. We defend the rights of all software users.

cat-icon 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor Boston, MA 02110 USA

The Marketplace is a way to find health coverage that meets your needs and budget.

cat-icon 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20201

HousingMaps was the very first Google Maps mashup, created before there was a Google Maps API. It overlaid Craigslist apartment and housing listings on a map, for some 30 US cities plus London.


mySociety is a not-for-profit social enterprise that exists to invent and popularise websites and apps that enable citizens around the world to exert power over institutions and decision makers.

NYC Public Data Directory

The commission shall publish annually a directory of the computerized information produced or maintained by city agencies which is required by law to be publicly accessible.

cat-icon New York City, NY, USA

Sunlight Foundation

The Sunlight Foundation is a national, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that uses civic technologies, open data, policy analysis and journalism to make our government and politics more accountable and transparent to all.

cat-icon Washington, DC

The People’s Right to Know

Comparing Harold L. Cross’ Pre-FOIA World to Post-FOIA Today

The US Office of Technology Assessment

OTA's purpose was to provide Congressional members and committees with objective and authoritative analysis of the complex scientific and technical issues of the late 20th century, i.e. technology assessment.

cat-icon United States


From Saving the Census to Google Maps: The US Census Bureau's TIGER System, 1980-2010

cat-icon Suite 216 Bendheim Hall Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 U.S.A.